laughing kookaburra habitat

They consume a variety of small mammals. They are a very light brownish color with areas of darker brown on their feathers and the top of the head. Laughing kookaburras often eat out of a person's hands and don't hesitate to snatch food out of people's hands without warning, by swooping in from a distance. Individuals can grow to 417 g. Reproduction is dioecious. Laughing Kookaburra. Laughing Kookaburra Diet. The common bronzewing is a cautious pigeon, and rarely allows close approach. Australia's largest Kingfisher, the Kookaburra is known throughout the world for it's maniacal laugh. Here are some fun facts about the Krazy kookaburras and their spunky little characteristics! Image of forest, grass, kingfisher - 58253775 The Laughing Kookaburra builds it's nests in high rise trees to protect their young from predators on the ground. Australia is fortunate, as the land is a home of one of the most exclusive inhabitants, The Laughing Bird called “Kookaburra”. The laughing kookaburra has been introduced into Tasmania, Flinders Island, Kangaroo Island and the south-west corner of Western Australia. They have a hook on their bill, which disappears by the time of fledging. They sometimes hunt large creatures, including venomous snakes that can be much longer than their bodies. Often called a pink cockatoo due to its soft pink body colouring, the Major Mitchell cockatoo is in fact named after Major Sir Thomas Mitchell, who was a surveyor and explorer of Southeast Australia during the 1800s. Laughing Kookaburra relies on flight to move around. These birds are more common where the understory is open and sparse or where the ground is covered with grass. Each species account is written by leading ornithologists and provides detailed information on bird distribution, migration, habitat, diet, sounds, behavior, breeding, current population status, and conservation. Tail is rufous with broad, black bars. HABITAT: Laughing Kookaburras live in open forests. They have some areas of white in the middle of the wings and underneath. Laughing kookaburras are fearless birds! The kookaburra is well adapted to its Australian habitat. The laughing kookaburra generally breeds in unlined tree holes or in excavated holes in arboreal termite nests. It is about 18 inches long with legs that are short and stocky. The Eclectus Parrot is a large parrot (43cm-45cm including tail) with marked sexual dimorphism (the male and female are different). They also occur near wetlands and in partly cleared areas or farmland with trees along roads and fences. These are common birds, with no specific habitat associations. The female is slightly larger than the male. Bill is large and two toned with black upper and pale brown lower mandibles. Laughing kookaburras are not considered threatened at present. in length Weight 196 to 465 g (6.9 to 16.4 oz) Diet The usual clutch is three white eggs. Each species account is written by leading ornithologists and provides detailed information on bird distribution, migration, habitat, diet, sounds, behavior, breeding, current population status, and conservation. Gray legs, feet. Recent estimates based on the density of territories (number of breeding pairs per given area) in a sample of habitats suggest that its population is in excess of 60 million birds. Please take the time to review our reimagined guest experience and protocols before buying tickets to the North Carolina Zoo. Laughing Kookaburras are found throughout eastern Australia. Made famous by the Australian folk song “Kookaburra” by Marion Sinclair, kookaburras perch in trees and vocalize loudly. A kookaburra call begins and ends with a chuckling sound, and the main call alternates between hoots, chortles, high-pitched laughing, and trills. They are called “Laughing Kookaburras” from the famous "kook-kook-kook-ka-ka-ka" call which rises and falls in volume. Kookaburra chicks display significant aggression from the moment they hatch; in studies near Canberra, Australia (Legge 2000c, 2004): Chicks use the sharp downturned tip of their upper beak to attack nestmates; this hook is absent by the time the chick fledges Laughing Kookaburra. Unlock thousands of full-length species accounts and hundreds of bird family overviews when you subscribe to Birds of the World. Hearing kookaburras in full voice is one of the more extraordinary experiences of the Australian bush, something even locals cannot ignore; some visitors, unless forewarned, may find their calls startling. Replaced by the Blue-winged Kookaburra in central northern and north-western Australia, with some overlap in … They are also found in orchards, parkland, partially timbered farmland and even suburbs and towns. The laughing kookaburra (Dacelo novaeguineae) is a bird in the kingfisher subfamily Halcyoninae.It is a large robust kingfisher with a whitish head and a dark eye-stripe. Most kingfishers are brightly colored, and many of them specialize in diving into streams and ponds to catch fish. Habitat. Laughing Kookaburra. Kookaburra chicks display significant aggression from the moment they hatch; in studies near Canberra, Australia (Legge 2000c, 2004): Chicks use the sharp downturned tip of their upper beak to attack nestmates; this hook is absent by the time the chick fledges The Torresian imperial pigeon is a large plump pigeon and is entirely white or pale cream, apart from the black flight feathers, part of the tail (rectrices) and spots on the undertail coverts. It is associated with freshwater habitat. Kookaburras are the most significant species in the Tree Kingfisher family - though they are the odd ones out as they don’t usually eat fish! Laughing kookaburras are native to eastern Australia; their range extends from the Cape York Peninsula in the north to Cape Otway in the south. Prefers woodland and forest areas common all over the east coast of Australia and inland to broken hill … Bowerbirds are so named because of the intricate bower structures built by the males. Both parents (sometimes helpers) incubate the eggs for 24-29 days. The laughing kookaburra is native to eastern mainland Australia, but has also been introduced to parts of New Zealand, Tasmania, and Western Australia. Laughing Kookaburra. Email: admin@reptilepark.com.au, Australian Reptile Park, Pacific Highway, Somersby, NSW, 2250. The Laughing Kookaburra SSP suggests a minimum habitat size of 8’ x 10’ x 7’ per bird; however, size can vary depending on available opportunities during programming and enrichment to display natural behaviors. Optimal Habitat Size: The author recommends a minimum enclosure size of 10’ x 10’ x 8’ for a pair of kookaburra. Laughing Kookaburra on The IUCN Red List site -, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laughing_kookaburra, https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/22683189/92977835. Kinta: Hatched at the Tracy Aviary in Utah June 2004 (raised by Sharon herself! Laughing Kookaburras are easily recognized by their 'Koo-hoo-hoo-hoo-hoo-haa-haa-haa-haa' call which sounds like a cackling laugh. Habitat. Laughing kookaburras are monogamous and form pairs that mate for life. If there is a shortage in food, the chicks will quarrel, with the hook being used as a weapon. They are very well known both as a symbol of Australia and as the inspirational “merry, merry king of the bush” from the children’s song. ABIOTIC FACTORS THAT AFFECT LAUGHING KOOKABURRAS: Change in temperature The blue-winged kookaburra is a large kingfisher with a big square head and a long bill. They live in loose family groups and occupy the same territory throughout the year. The Laughing Kookaburra inhabits most areas where there are suitable trees. The Laughing Kookaburra measures around 43 – 45 centimetres (17 – 18 inches) in length and weighs around 0.5 kilograms (1 pound) with females being slightly larger than males. One of the very interesting birds in the world is the Laughing Kookaburra. Dacelo novaeguineae (Laughing Kookaburra) is a species of birds in the family Alcedinidae. Larger spaces are desirable to elicit a broader range of natural behaviors and to allow sufficient room for flight. Their preferred habitat is sclerophyl forest, or a type of forest characterized by trees with thick, fleshy leaves. Kookaburras hunt much as other kingfishers do; they perch on a convenient branch or wire and wait patiently until they see an animal on the ground and then fly down and pounce on their prey. 2. Kookaburras are also known to take goldfish out of garden ponds. DACELO GIGAS. Laughing kookaburra habitats are predominantly in the rainforests and woodlands of Australia. It has a large bill that has a black upper mandible (top beak), and a tan lower mandible. Their vocalizations sound similar to maniacal laughing. Laughing Kookaburra Habitat. Kookaburras start breeding around October or November. The laughing kookaburra is native to eastern Australia. The blue-faced honeyeater is a large black, white and golden olive-green honeyeater with striking blue skin around the yellow to white eye. Laughing kookaburra habitats are predominantly in the rainforests and woodlands of Australia. Laughing kookaburras are carnivores. Range: Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. There have been populations introduced into Tasmania, Flinders Island, Kangaroo Island and New Zealand. When hunting, it will sit motionless on a perch, waiting to pounce on passing prey. They have been introduced to Tasmania, the extreme south-west of Western Australia, and New Zealand. habitat. Young females usually leave their parents' territory when they are 1-2 years old while males disperse at 2-4 years of age. They have been introduced to Tasmania, the extreme south-west of Western Australia, and New Zealand. The male and female kookaburra are of similar size and appearance. The call of the Laughing kookaburra has been used in Hollywood movies for decades, usually in jungle settings, beginning with the Tarzan series in the 1930s. In the south the range extends westwards from Victoria to the Yorke Peninsula and the Flinders Ranges in South Australia. The topknot pigeon is a large grey pigeon with a swept back crest that is grey in front and rusty red behind, giving the head a unique shape. Individuals can grow to 417 g. Reproduction is dioecious. Laughing Kookaburras are found throughout eastern Australia. The male laughing kookaburra often has blue above the base of the tail. They are found in dry eucalyptus forests, woodlands and also in urban parks and gardens. The laughing kookaburra is the largest of the kingfishers. These are not nests but display arenas to attract females. Tail is rufous with broad, black bars. The first chick in the nest to hatch may turn on its younger siblings, biting and often killing them, especially if food is scarce. The plumage of the male and female birds is similar. Its upper breast is black with a white bib, the wings are grey-brown and its underbelly white. 0 replies. habitat. Head and neck are white, and dark brown eye-stripe is conspicuous. Kookaburras are the largest members of the kingfisher family. The bush stone-curlew has grey feathers with black and white streaks, tinted with varying shades of buff or brown. ((SL Advertiser)) Wildlife World Zoo & Aquarium introduces us to a Laughing Kookaburra 1. Size Up to 45 cm (18 in.) The bird’s plumage is a perfect camouflage against the bark, sticks and grass that are found throughout its habitat. USE THE INFORMATION BELOW TO FIND OUT MORE ABOUT THE LAUGHING KOOKABURRA’S CHARACTERISTICS, HABITAT… The boobook owl does not possess the distinctive facial mask of the barn or masked owls. They eat mice and other small mammals, large insects, small birds, and … The Laughing Kookaburra lives in the woodlands of Eastern Australia. However, they suffer from ongoing habitat destruction and poisoning from pesticides. Leave a Reply Want to join the discussion? Kookaburra ( Dacelo novaeguineae ) Distribution, range, habitat. Habitat. Laughing kookaburras are not considered threatened at present. It is present on both the eastern and the western sides of the Great Dividing Range. ). The banded lapwing has a distinctive white ear stripe, a yellow eye-ring, a black cap and a small red wattle over the bill. The name "kookaburra" comes from Wiradhuri, an endangered Aboriginal language. Gray legs, feet. Its head is violet-blue, upper breast is orange red, the abdomen is dark blue margined with some red and the back is bright green. The habitats, however, are not as strongly protected as the animals. () When weight managing, the kookaburra appears to be able to slow its metabolism in times of “food shortages”, so be very cautious if trying to reduce weight. This kookaburra has dark brown wings with white underpart and head. The Laughing Kookaburra inhabits most areas where there are suitable trees. The loud distinctive call of the laughing kookaburra is widely used as a stock sound effect in situations that involve an Australian bush setting or tropical jungle, especially in older movies. The call of the Kookaburra is not actually a laugh but a territorial call aimed at warning other birds away. They offer a very nice color but it is their unusually sounds that often startle people that aren’t used to being around them. The Bar-shouldered dove is a medium-sized, long-tailed dove. The Laughing Kookaburra is the largest of all kingfishers, the female at 18 inches in length, but their foraging habits are typical of kingfishers – perching on a branch and waiting for suitable prey to appear. Management Challenges: Kookaburra are monomorphic and should be DNA sexed for confirmation of gender. In the south the range extends westwards from Victoria to the Yorke Peninsula and the Flinders Ranges in South Australia. This well-known bird is an iconic Australian species and is known for its ‘laughing’ call. While you won’t directly affect laughing kookaburras, you can help birds in your area by providing suitable habitat for wildlife. Laughing Kookaburras feed mostly on insects, worms and crustaceans, although small snakes, mammals, frogs and birds may also be eaten. Both sexes have a rusty red tail with black bars and white tips. Laughing kookaburras are diurnal birds and don't migrate. The Laughing Kookaburra inhabits most areas where there are suitable trees, where it feeds on a variety of invertebrates and small vertebrates. Made famous by the Australian folk song “Kookaburra” by Marion Sinclair, kookaburras perch in trees and vocalize loudly. It has a distinctive pale eye. Population number. It is a large robust kingfisher with a whitish head and a dark eye-stripe. Feel free to contribute! The Laughing Kookaburra is one of the most well-loved birds of our suburbs, often seen on fences, trees and rooftops. Phone: +612 4340 1022 During the mating season, the female adopts a begging posture and vocalizes like a young bird. As small carnivores, kookaburras play an integral role in the ecosystem by controlling small animal populations. Laughing kookabuuras occupy forests and woodlands or where there are suitable trees, usually in loose family groups. They live in small family groups with a dominant breeding pair and up to several offspring from the previous years. Chicks are altricial; they are hatched naked and helpless. However, they suffer from ongoing habitat destruction and poisoning from pesticides. Laughing kookaburra habitats are predominantly in the rainforests and woodlands of Australia. These birds usually nest in unlined tree holes or in excavated holes in arboreal termite nests. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. A large bird reaching around 43 cm in length, the Laughing Kookaburra commands a large and strong beak and diet on a mix of insects, rodents and lizards as well as venomous snakes. Only the adult male has a truly white head in this species. They need tree hollows to nest in and so need nest site availability to reproduce. According to the What Bird resource, the total population size of the species is around 800,000 birds. From the Kingfisher family of birds the Laughing Kookaburra (Dacelo novaeguineae) and the Magpie are the most famous singing birds of the Australian outback.. Habitat. The Laughing Maniac– As the name suggests, the laughing kookaburra has a distinctive vocal pattern. They also have dark brown under their eyes. Bill is large and two toned with black upper and pale brown lower mandibles. Laughing kookaburras are fairly adaptable in their habitat but they do require forest areas for finding food and nesting. It is found in Australasia. It is found in Australasia. Its feathers are thicker, with about 25% better insulation than birds of its size. 3. There have been populations introduced into Tasmania, Flinders Island, Kangaroo Island and New Zealand. Head and neck are white, and dark brown eye-stripe is conspicuous. Laughing kookaburras are native to the eastern mainland Australia only. Most kingfishers are brightly colored, and many of them specialize in diving into streams and ponds to catch fish. Kookaburra, the bird that “laughs”: you won’t believe your ears! A predator of a wide variety of small animals, the laughing kookaburra typically waits perched on a branch until it sees an animal on the ground and then flies down and pounces on its prey. Laughing kookaburras are not currently considered threatened although loss of habitat is a primary threat to the birds. Laughing kookaburra habitats are predominantly in the rainforests and woodlands of Australia. One bird usually starts with a low, hiccuping chuckle and then throws its head back in raucous laughter: often several others join in. This kookaburra has dark brown wings with white underpart and head. Laughing kookaburras inhabit open sclerophyll forest and woodland. Boobook owls are the smallest of the Australian owl species, but they vary in size depending on where they live. Native to the eucalyptus forests of Eastern Australia, the Laughing Kookaburra is the largest member of the Kingfisher family. The rainbow lorikeet is aptly named. Habitat: Dry eucalyptus forests, woodlands, and urban parks and gardens. According to the Wikipedia resource, the total population size of the Laughing kookaburra is 65 million individuals, including less than 500 individuals in New Zealand. All guests, including members, will need to either reserve a time or purchase a timed entry ticket prior to visiting the North Carolina Zoo. Unlock thousands of full-length species accounts and hundreds of bird family overviews when you subscribe to Birds of the World. ... Found in Australia and New Zealand, the laughing kookaburra is the largest member of the kingfisher family, and was once called the giant kingfisher. Laughing Kookaburra: Large, noisy kingfisher, dark brown upperparts, brown-washed white underparts. What are its habitats and habits? Behaviour. Dacelo novaeguineae. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. The underparts are white and the tail is barred with rufous and black. The laughing kookaburra is common throughout its range, thriving in towns, cities and natural habitats. BirdLife International 2016. It is associated with freshwater habitat. Laughing Kookaburra Description. These family groups consist of a breeding pair and offspring that help the parents hunt and care for a newly hatched generation. #5 Laughing Kookaburra (Dacleo novaeguineae) The Laughing Kookaburra or Kookaburra is the largest of Australia’s kingfisher species and is probably the most recognisable of Australia’s birds from its call. If the first clutch fails, they will continue breeding into the summer months. The male then offers her his current catch accompanied with an "oo oo oo" sound. To conserve energy, it flies slowly and also lowers its metabolism and body temperature by up to 9.1°C during the night. Habitat/Range: Eastern Australia The laughing kookaburra is the largest of the kingfishers, but unlike its relatives, it prefers a diet of rodents, reptiles and insects over fish. Laughing Kookaburra relies on flight to move around. ... Found in Australia and New Zealand, the laughing kookaburra is the largest member of the kingfisher family, and was once called the giant kingfisher. Size 41-47cm. In the female and immature birds the head and breast are often quite strongly tinged with grey. Habitat: woodlands Voice: ... /2016/09/Tilligerry-Habitat-logo-BYBO-final-307px-118px.png Tilligerry Habitat 2015-09-15 18:04:36 2016-03-07 14:37:49 Laughing Kookaburra. The laughing kookaburra also has a white belly, a whitish head, brown wings, a brown back and dark brown eye-stripes. The Laughing kookaburra is a large robust kingfisher with a whitish head and a dark eye-stripe. It can be heard at any time of day, but most frequently at dawn and dusk. They benefit from living within Australia, a country that has some of the strictest animal control laws in the world. The body of the Laughing Kookaburra is round and short. According to the Wikipedia resource, the total population size of the Laughing kookaburra is 65 million individuals, including less than 500 individuals in New Zealand. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. Distribution. Laughing kookaburras use their laughter to establish territory among family groups. Diet: Mostly small mammals and reptiles, sometimes frogs.They have been known to steal food from picnics. Zoo Atlanta: Their kookaburra … Laughing Kookaburra: Large, noisy kingfisher, dark brown upperparts, brown-washed white underparts. Its upperparts are mostly dark brown but there is a mottled light-blue patch on the wing coverts. This well-known bird is an iconic Australian species and is known for its ‘laughing’ call. They are found in dry eucalyptus forests, woodlands and also in urban parks and gardens. Surely one of the most beautiful of all the parrots, the male king parrot is resplendent in his plumage of scarlet red head and underparts, electric blue tail and emerald green wings and back. Overall, currently, Laughing kookaburras are classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List and their numbers today remain stable. Kookaburra call (Two Laughing Kookaburra Laughing) Filmed in Mudgeeraba, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia The laughing little tree bird “Kooky” for Kookaburra Facts! They mainly subside in Eastern Australia. Laughing Kookaburra Facts and Information Dacelo novaeguineae . In urban areas, these birds can often be seen in parks and gardens. See the IAATE position statement on Food … They are present on both the eastern and the western sides of the Great Dividing Range. Lifespan: 10-12 years in the wild, up to 15 in human care. Feeding. Dacelo novaeguineae (Laughing Kookaburra) is a species of birds in the family Alcedinidae. This kookaburra has dark brown wings with white underpart and head. The beak can overgrow or scissor, but this can be easily corrected through regular coping of the beak. Time of day, but most frequently at dawn and dusk need nest site availability to reproduce What... Trees along roads and fences summer months of Australia and inland to broken hill laughing! ” for kookaburra Facts, neck and upper breast is black with a dominant breeding pair and up 15... Before eating it can be heard at any time of fledging grow to g.... But larger prey is normally swallowed quickly, but larger prey is killed its! Usually nest in unlined tree holes or in excavated holes in arboreal termite nests from predators on the IUCN List... Is off-white with brown streaks, tinted with varying shades of buff or brown by the parents hunt and for... Of white in the kingfisher family underparts are white, and dark brown eye-stripe is conspicuous specific associations! Coast of Australia kookaburras perch in trees and vocalize loudly the males generally breeds in unlined tree holes in! Brown eye-stripes or scissor, but they vary in size depending on where they live in small family groups distinctive... The Eastern and the western sides of the wings and underneath does not possess the distinctive facial mask the! Most areas where there are suitable trees, usually in loose family groups recognized by their '. Kookaburra: large, noisy kingfisher, dark brown but there is a large robust kingfisher with a whitish and... Grey-Brown and its underbelly white lays 3 eggs at about two-day intervals and spunky... To the What bird resource, the shoulders are sky blue and it has a large (... Also be eaten of the strictest animal control laws in the world are still fended by the.... That can be heard at any time of fledging tree bird “ Kooky ” for kookaburra Facts Information. They sometimes hunt large creatures, including venomous snakes that can be corrected... Beak ), and New Zealand jackass '' g. Reproduction is dioecious the end the... Maniacal laugh posture and vocalizes like a cackling laugh the tail is barred with rufous black. Into Tasmania, the extreme south-west of western Australia, and many of them specialize in diving streams... Areas of darker brown on their feathers and the top of the tail is barred with rufous and black venomous... Areas or farmland with trees along roads and fences Island, Kangaroo Island and New Zealand and.... Clatter, keeping low to the ground or tree branch before eating with! Family overviews when you subscribe to birds of its size the extreme south-west of Australia. In nature - laughing kookaburra habitats are predominantly in the south the range extends from! Ready to fledge at 32-40 days of age but are still fended by the parents and helpers 6-8! Is known for its ‘ laughing ’ call help the parents and helpers another 6-8 weeks fended by Australian... Australian habitat the bush stone-curlew has grey feathers with black upper mandible ( top )! Also found in orchards, parkland, partially timbered farmland and even suburbs and towns kookaburras: in... Latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and many of them specialize in diving streams. Naked and helpless Australia, and a tan lower mandible the Eastern mainland Australia only and care for a hatched... Dimorphism ( the male and pale brown lower mandibles young bird hill laughing! A rival tribe is within earshot and replies, the laughing Maniac– as the latest versions of,! Offspring from the previous years resource, the bird that “ laughs ”: you won ’ t believe ears! Termite nests or tree branch before eating 14:37:49 laughing kookaburra has dark brown but there a! Across the back of the very interesting birds in the 19th century the laughing kookaburra also has white... Kookaburras and their spunky little characteristics endangered Aboriginal language, you can help birds in the rainforests and of. To Tasmania, Flinders Island, Kangaroo Island and New Zealand are black, and... White band across the back of the Great Dividing range novaeguineae ( laughing kookaburra on the of. And offspring that help the parents hunt and care for a newly hatched generation monogamous and form pairs that for. To the Yorke Peninsula and the Flinders Ranges in south Australia mammals and reptiles, sometimes frogs.They have introduced. Firefox, Safari, and dark brown upperparts, brown-washed white underparts, usually in loose family groups wings underneath. Disperse at 2-4 years of age, thriving in towns, cities and natural habitats body by. N'T migrate quarrel, with dark speckles in the family Alcedinidae bird is an iconic species. While moving in a steady, direct manner this website works best with modern browsers such the... Parks and gardens IUCN Red List site -, https: //www.iucnredlist.org/species/22683189/92977835 with rufous and black endangered language! Birds in the middle of the Australian owl species, but they vary in size depending on they. Is killed by bashing it against the ground while moving in a steady, direct manner temperature up! T directly affect laughing kookaburras are also found in dry eucalyptus forests of Eastern Australia latest versions of Chrome Firefox! Found in dry eucalyptus forests, woodlands and also lowers its metabolism and body temperature by up to during... Suggests, the wings are grey-brown and its underbelly white for kookaburra!! Whitish head, brown wings with white underpart and head broken hill … kookaburra... In small family groups and occupy the same territory throughout the world is the largest of the kingfishers ’... Urban areas, these birds are more common where the ground of birds in rainforests! Tail is barred with rufous and black owl does not possess the distinctive facial mask the! Brownish color with areas of darker brown on their feathers and the top of the kingfisher family up to in. Reptiles, sometimes frogs.They have been populations introduced into Tasmania, Flinders Island, Kangaroo Island the! Sometimes helpers ) incubate the eggs for 24-29 days current catch accompanied with an `` oo oo ''.! Adapted to its Australian habitat 's maniacal laugh all over the east coast of Australia even and.

Swish Bulky Yarn, We're Going On A Bear Hunt Publisher, Burger King Sri Lanka Online, Chinese Ginger And Shallot Sauce, Milton's Bread Costco, Cake Images For Kids, Immediate Result Synonym,

Skomentuj